Minggu, 11 Maret 2012

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION BACKGROUND PHILOSOPHY
HIGHER EDUCATION IN PUBLIC
INTRODUCTION 

Changes occurring in the world today is so fast that caused the whole existing order in this world also change, while the new order has not been established. This causes the joints of the life that had been believed to be the truth becomes obsolete. Values ​​that serve as a model of life has lost its authority, so that people become confused. The confusion has caused many crises, especially when the financial crisis whose impact is felt at all in the political field as well as influential in the field of human moral behavior and attitudes in various parts of the world, especially developing countries, including Indonesia. In order to respond to the above conditions, the government need not anticipate that the state toward a greater concern. One solution the government in keeping alive the values ​​of role models in the nation and the state more effectively is through education. Efforts in education especially higher education in the form of changes in the curriculum. Teaching curriculum at universities should be able to address problems of transformation of these values. In accordance with the references of national education development strategy (Law No.20 of 2003 on National Education System), it is determined that:


    
College curriculum including Citizenship Education Core Curriculum should be designed in line competency-based curriculum design and direction of the field of study in college
    
Berpendekatan interests of the learning process of students didactic and dialogic
    
Professionalism of teachers as educators need to be continuously improved.
All this will be translated into the three topics which include: (1) Pancasila as the basis and the ethical life of the nation. (2) Citizenship Education to build a civilized democratic society. (3) Civic Education in Public Higher Education: the basic values ​​and guidelines for graduate work. PANCASILA AS THE BASIS AND ETHICS of national and state A. Definition of Ethics Ethics is a branch of philosophy that addresses the problem of good and bad. The realm of discussion include the study of practical and philosophical reflection on morality is normative. Assessment praxis as an act of conscious morality touched by and based on societal norms that govern a good deed (propriety) or bad (immoral). While reflereksi ajran moral philosophical about HOW to teach about moral philosophy can be answered rationally and responsibly. B. Pancasila as a Source of Ethics Actualization of Pancasila as the basic ethical principles are reflected in the precepts, namely: First precepts: respect for every person or liberty of citizens to a variety of religion and belief in each one, and make his teachings as a role model to guide and direct the course of his life. These two precepts: respect for every person and the citizen as a person (persona) "intact as a man", man as the subject of support, buffer, caretaker and manager of the fundamental rights that are innate wholeness sutu bermartabad with existence itself. The third Sila: behave and act fairly in dealing with primordial segmentations or narrow the soul and the spirit of "Unity in Diversity" - "united in diversity" and "different in unity". Fourth Precept: freedom, independence, unity, owned and developed on the basis of deliberation to reach agreement in an honest and open in managing the various aspects of life. Five Precepts: to foster and develop a socially just community that includes equality (equality) and equity (equity) for every person or every citizen. The precepts of Pancasila is an integral and integrative unity itself as a critical reference to social criticism, as well as a comprehensive and evaluative for the development of ethics in the life of society, nation and state. Consequences and implications is that the ethical norms that reflect the precepts will underlie and direct the other precepts. C. Empowerment Ethics in the Context of Life Academic Pancasila Pancasila as the basis for ethics in the life of society, nation and state are empowered through the academic freedom to underlie a mental attitude or attitude. Academic freedom is a right and responsibility for one's academics. Rights and responsibilities were tied to the academic ethic, namely: A. Curiosity, in the sense of having the desire to constantly learn new things in the development of science, which knows no stopping point of impact and influence by itself also to the development of ethics; 2. Insight, breadth and depth in the sense that the ethical values ​​as the basic norms for the life of a nation and state in public life is inseparable from the cultural elements of life and developing the characteristics that distinguish people from other nations; 3. Open, in the broad sense that scientific truth is something that is tentative, that scientific truth is not something that is determined only once and not something that can not be contested, the implication is that an understanding of ethical norms not only textual but also contextual to be given a new meaning in accordance with the actual conditions that develop within the community; 4. Open-mindedness, in the sense of willing and humble (modest) are willing to accept criticism from other parties to the establishment or intellectual attitude; 5. Honestly, in the sense of mentioning any sources or information obtained from other parties in support of an attitude or opinion; 6. Independent, in a sense responsible for the attitudes and opinions, free from pressure or the "will of the ordered" by anyone and from anywhere. Pancasila as the core philosophy for the life of society, nation and state, also understand the ethical values ​​laden with philosophical, if not based on an understanding of aspects of his philosophy, then what we perceive is just phenomenal aspects of the course without touching its essential core. CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION TO BUILD A COMMUNITY OF DEMOCRACY civilized Citizenship education as we know it today has undergone a long journey through the critical study since the 1960's, known as Subject "Civic" in primary school and is the embryo of the "Civic Education" as "the Body Of Knowledge". Citizenship education as an instrument of knowledge (the Body Of Knowledge) is directed to establish civilized democratic society. Normatively, Citizenship Education in obtaining the basic legality of Article 3 of Law. 20 of 2003 on National Education System says: "The National Education functions to develop skills and form the character and civilization of the nation's dignity in the context of the intellectual life of the nation". The above provisions should be understood as an education that will develop skills and form a national character based on the values ​​that grow, live, and thrive in the life of the nation. This is in line with national educational goals in accordance with Article 3 of the National Education Act, which reads, as follows: "... The development of potential learners in order to become a man of faith and fear of God Almighty, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible". In the foregoing it can be seen that democratic education is an integral part of national education. In today's context is very democratic education requires a shared understanding of the need for change and reaffirmation of the vision, mission and strategy of the psycho-pedagogical and socio andragogis civic education, where education becomes the substance of democracy. Citizenship education is a field of study that has the object of study of virtue and civic culture, using the disciplines of education and political science as a fundamental scientific framework and other relevant disciplines are coherently organized in the form of curricular programs nationality, socio-cultural activities and studies scientific citizenship. Similarly, democratic education is an educational concept that includes a systemic and coherent understanding of the ideals, values, concepts, and principles of cultural democracy through social interaction and psycho-pedagogical, democratic, and oriented towards the systematic and systemic efforts to build democratic life better. Therefore, rekonseptualisasi civic education in the context of Indonesia's democracy education is necessary, because it turns the process of political education, democracy and human rights so far has not given encouraging results and promising prospects. Visible indicators that can be seen on the freedom of expression is likely to anarchists, human rights violations everywhere, the social and political communication are likely to win his own home, the law is defeated, and social control are often out of good manners, as well as the degradation of the authority of the state officials. The results of the "National Survey of Voter Education" (Asia Foundation: 1998) showed that over 60% of the national sample indicated not understand about what, why, and how democracy. Rekonseptualisasi democratic education process can be based on basic assumptions as follows:

    
National commitment for the proper functioning of education as a vehicle to develop capabilities and establish the character and civilization of the nation's dignity in the context of the nation, requires a psycho-pedagogical vehicle (the development potential of students in school) and socio-andragogis (facilitating the empowerment of youth and adults in the community) that allow the democratic process of lifelong learning through education of democracy;
    
Democratic transformation in Indonesia requires a conception of society which is believed to be correct and significantly supported by means of appropriate educational goals, strategic, and contextual to each individual citizen able to portray himself as an intelligent citizen, democratic, character, and civilized;
    
Democratic education is conducted in the context of formal education, non formal, informal and has not achieved optimal target communities in developing intelligent, kind, character, and civilized. This requires systematic and systematic effort to develop a model of democratic education that theoretically and empirically valid, reliable contextual, and flexibility;
    
In psycho-pedagogical and socio-andragogis, democratic education is considered the most appropriate education to develop democratic citizenship (education for democratic citizenship), in which accommodate education about, through, and for democracy (education about, through, and for democracy) carried out systematically in the formal education system including higher education;
    
To obtain a model of civic education in psycho-pedagogical and socio-andragogis acceptable and reliable it is necessary to assess the strength of the context, input and process reliability, in order to produce an adequate education in accordance with the vision and mission of civic education for citizens of Indonesia society (civil society / civil / public Pancasila).
Democratic education can be seen in 2 (two) setting, namely: "school-based democracy education" and "democracy-based society education". School-based democracy is a democracy in the context of education-based or formal education, whereas education sociaty-based democracy is democracy in the context of education-based or community life. In instrumental, educational democracy in Indonesia has been outlined in various legislation since the date of the proposed BP KNIP 1945 until the advent of Law. 20 of 2003 on National Education System (Law on National Education System). According to Article 3 of Law on National Education, national education goals stated as: "the development of potential learners in order to become a man of faith and fear of God Almighty, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent, and become citizens the demokratisdan responsible ". Thus since 1945 until now, the instruments of legislation has placed education as an integral part of democratic education. In order curricular instruments, democratic education has been presented in a variety of subjects and courses. However, education for democracy in Indonesia has not been successful because it has not developed the fundamental paradigm of the systemic democratic education, so that efforts to develop "civic intelligence, civic participation, and responsibility" through the various dimensions of "civic education" as the main vehicle for democratic education can not be realized to the fullest. In the paradigmatic system of civic education which is also related to democratic education has three components, namely: the scientific study of science citizenship education, civic education curricular programs, socio-cultural and civic movements, starting from the essence coherently and lead to the development of civic knowledge, values ​​and citizenship attitudes and skills of citizenship must be optimized CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION IN PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION: AS THE BASIC VALUES AND GUIDELINES FOR GRADUATES work 21st century education who agreed to by nine ministers of education of the populous countries of the world, including Indonesia, New Delhi 1996, education must play an effective role in terms of:

    
Prepare a personal, as wrga state and responsible members of society.
    
Embedding the basis of sustainable development (sustainable development) to human welfare and environmental conservation.
    
Education is oriented to the control, development, and dissemination of knowledge, technology and art for the sake of humanity.
In line with the above, the World Conference on higher education organized by UNESCO in Paris in 1998 which was attended by representatives from 140 countries including Indonesia agreed on changes to the future of higher education, which is based on the view that the responsibility for higher education are:

    
In addition to continuing the values, the transfer of technology and the science of art, also spawned a high conscious citizens of the nation and humanity.
    
Preparing the future workforce is productive in a dynamic context.
    
Changing ways of thinking, attitudes and behavior of individuals and groups of people work in order to initiate social change associated with changes in the direction of progress, justice and freedom.
Senyampang world with the agreement mentioned above, national pendidikn Indonesia to the correlation as outlined in the Legislative Act No.. VII in 2001 that the vision of Indonesia 2020, Indonesia aims to realize a society that is religious, humane, united, democratic, just, prosperous, developed, independently, as well as good and clean in the state organization. According to Malik Fajar (1999), the people of Indonesia as Indonesia 2020 vision is being referred to as "civil society", ie a society that has a "democratic civilization" or the character as follows:

    
Faith and piety to God Almighty and the Pancasila.
    
Democratic, civilized, respect for differences, keragamaman, opinions and views.
    
Recognize and uphold human rights (human rights), equality, and non-discriminatory.
    
Aware, subject to the law and order.
    
Being able to participate in public decision-making, has the expertise, competitive skills with universal solidarity.
    
Uphold noble values ​​rooted in a civilized and democratic society.
    
Learning and last a lifetime, build a civilized citizen.
Law No.20 of 2003 gave Indonesia the formulation of Vision 2020 in the form of a civilized community residents (Civil Sociaty, civil society) to be realized through the National Education as follows: "The development potential of the students in order to become a man of faith and fear of God Almighty, noble, healthy, knowledgeable, skilled, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible". Indonesia to achieve Vision 2020, the National Higher Education Indonesia has a medium-term program called the National Higher Education Vision 2010, as follows:

    
Develop the intellectual ability of students to become good citizens and responsible for achieving the nation's ability to compete a meaningful life.
    
Build a system of higher education that contribute to the development of a democratic society, civilized and inclusive, to maintain national unity.
On the basis that all the universities should be able to produce: "Humans are superior intellectually, morally graceful, competent in the mastery of science, technology and art, and is committed to fulfilling the mandate of social activities".
A. Citizenship Education Curriculum in Higher Education Article 37 paragraph (2) of Law No.20 of 2003 on National Education System of Higher Education stated that the curriculum must include:

    
Religious education
    
Citizenship Education
    
Language
Provision will be further stipulated by government regulation, but until now no government regulation intended to arrive. While government regulation has not come out then Minister of National Education Guidelines for Curriculum Development No.232/U/2000 Higher Education and Student Learning Outcomes Assessment and the Core Curriculum No.045/U/2002 on Higher Education declared still valid. According to this provision is included in the Citizenship Education Personality Development Course (MPK). Citizenship education is an ideal role to develop the potential of students as a citizen of Indonesia who have personality and have a solid sense of community and national responsibility. Actualization of Education is giving birth Kewaganegaraan students as well as professional scientists Indonesian citizen who has a sense of nationalism and patriotism (nationalism) is high. This is consistent with the paradigm of the National Higher Education has launched for 2003-2010. The learning process as fertilization of nationalism, nation and state awareness for students as future scholars, scientists, or professionals who are internationally competitive enabled based on the principles and patterns prisnsip Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC). B. Citizenship Education Study material Based on the paradigm of Higher Education 2003-2010, competence Citizenship Education in Higher Education can be formulated as follows:

    
Gave birth to a citizen who has insight into the state and nation, and nationalism is high.
    
Gave birth to a citizen who has a strong commitment terhdap values ​​of human rights and democracy, as well as critical thinking on the matter.
    
Gave birth to a citizen who is able to participate in efforts to stop the culture of violence, resolve conflicts in a peaceful society based on Pancasila values ​​and universal values, and respect for the rule of law (rule of law / rechtstaat).
    
Gave birth to a citizen who is able to contribute to national problems and public policy.
    
Gave birth to a citizen who has an international understanding of the "Civil Society".
To achieve these outcomes, the study of matter at the College of citizenship education in the future should include several things, namely:

    
Philosophy of Pancasila
    
Nationalism and National Identity
    
State Relations and Citizen: Citizen Rights and Duties of Indonesia
    
Democracy, Rule of Law, and Human Rights
    
Geopolitical and geostrategi Indonesia


CLOSING
By understanding the philosophical background of Civic Education in Public Higher Education, it is expected that the implementation of learning Citizenship Education can be accounted for on the grounds that through citizenship education, democracy education paradigm systemically with Intellegence civic development, civic participation, and civic responcibility of "civic eduction" is a vehicle democratic education is expected to produce human-quality with professional skills as well as the typical civilized Pancasila. Core Phylosophy Pancasila should be for life, berbngsa and state in a democratic society in order to create a civilized people. Under it all, General College should be able to produce a superior human being intellectually, morally annggun, competent in the mastery of science, technology and art, and is committed to fulfilling the mandate of the various social activities such





REFERENCES
Mansoer, Hamdan. , 2005. Civic Education in Public Higher Education as a Basic Value and Guidelines for Graduate Work. Papers. Civics SUSCADOS Director General of Higher Education. Jakarta. 13 to 23 December 2005.
Siswomihardjo, Koento Wibisono. , 2005. Ethics Pancasila as the basis of social life, nation and state. Papers. Civics SUSCADOS Director General of Higher Education. Jakarta. 13 to 23 December 2005.
------------------. , 2005. National Identity Development Through Revitalization Actualization Pancasila. Papers. Civics SUSCADOS Director General of Higher Education. Jakarta. 13 to 23 December 2005. Winataputra, Udin S. , 2005. Kewargaegaraan Education for Democratic Society Building and civilized. Papers. Civics SUSCADOS Director General of Higher Education. Jakarta. 13 to 23 December 2005.

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